Paradigmes 2023-01-11T11:16:56+00:00 Foudil DAHOU Open Journal Systems <p>La revue quadrimestrielle <strong>Paradigmes</strong> est la publication scientifique du laboratoire de recherche LeFEU- E1572300 <em>(Le Français des Écrits Universitaires)</em> de l’Université Kasdi Merbah Ouargla (Algérie). Publiée en français, la revue est destinée aux enseignants-chercheurs et doctorants ainsi qu’à tous les universitaires du domaine souhaitant publier leurs travaux.&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> <p><strong>Paradigmes</strong> se veut un lieu ouvert de rencontres et de confrontations entre différents points de vue. La revue privilégie la réflexion interdisciplinaire inscrite dans le champ triptyque des <em>sciences du langage</em>, des <em>sciences des textes littéraires</em> et de la <em>didactique des langues-cultures</em>.</p> <p>Paradigmes est ouverte à toute proposition de texte qui s’inscrit dans une démarche universitaire rigoureuse. Des présentations de mémoires et de thèses ainsi que des critiques d’ouvrages peuvent être publiées. Les articles doivent être rédigés en français ; ils sont inédits en ce sens qu’ils ne doivent être soumis à aucune autre revue. <strong>Les textes doivent être envoyés au format Word pour soumission via la plateforme ASJP</strong> suivant le lien : &nbsp;<a href=""></a>&nbsp;</p> <p>Les articles publiés par <strong>Paradigmes</strong> sont des textes originaux. Tous les articles font l’objet d’une double révision anonyme.&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Overview of Higher Education in Algeria From Independence to Present 2023-01-11T11:16:56+00:00 Hassina Houa BELHOCINE <p>The university is a new institution in Algeria; it was created in 1909 by and for France. Its development has been gradual; the Algerian Academy was founded in 1848. However, the French university in Algeria was far from the Algerian population was preoccupied with poverty and struggle for life. At independence, Algeria guarantees its will to generalize and democratize education to all Algerians. For independent Algeria, education was a means to meet the challenge of getting out of underdevelopment and to ensure social justice for the population that had suffered deprivation and injustice for a very long time. Today, the challenge has been met, but not sufficiently in the qualities</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## the Triptich of Algerianness Foundations and Markers 2023-01-11T10:53:25+00:00 Mustapha GUENAOU <p>This contribution is part of the celebration of the sixtieth anniversary of national<br>independence. Several markers are evoked by the text which insists on Algerianness, the<br>foundations, the term, the concept, the notion and the socio-anthropological paradigm. Signs<br>and symbols are recalled for a better understanding of the term used, Algerianness.<br>Algerianness questions the History and Memory of the country and its population, without<br>forgetting the use of archives and documents that recall the bygone era of French colonialism,<br>which remained in Algeria for one hundred and thirty-two (132) years: 5 July 1830 – July 5,<br>1962.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thoughts on The Work of Wassyla Tamzali An Algerian Education, from The Revolution to The Dark Decade (2007) 2023-01-11T10:56:35+00:00 Kinda BENYAHIA <p>Wassyla Tamzali’s work tells the story of the writer and her condition as an<br>Algerian woman before and after Independence. The examination of this story allows us to<br>take stock of the condition of Algerian women and to see how over the years their status has<br>not ceased to arouse controversy</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Architecture of Algiers by the Texts of Fernand Pouillon An Emblematic Figure 2023-01-11T11:00:43+00:00 Mohamed Nadir SEBKI <p>The objective of this article is to highlight the history of the architecture of<br>Algiers after 1962, through the poems, stories and travels and the gaze of the great European<br>architects of the modern movement on the city of Algiers. The great names in architecture<br>have been marked by the splendor of the North African landscape, culture and customs, as<br>demonstrated by Le Corbusier through his correspondence and his sketches of 1931, trips that<br>will inspire his works and which become inexhaustible sources for his inspiration; but also<br>Fernand Pouillon's architectural memoirs, an emblematic figure in Algeria during the French<br>occupation but also after the independence of Algeria, as well as other builders of the same<br>period marked by Algeria, describing the important influence that this country had in their<br>architectural reflection and their personality, going as far as the feeling of belonging to the<br>latter.<br>Nowadays the heritage of the 20th century in Algiers presents a real alternative for the<br>development of the city, as the case of Climat de France by Fernand Pouillon, remarkable&nbsp;works are to be invested in particular in the energy transition approach that the city is<br>preparing.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Maurice Audin… « Only the Truth Is Revolutionary » 2023-01-11T11:01:13+00:00 Malika GUEBAILIA <p>It’s been just sixty-five years since a twenty-five-year-old communist<br>mathematician, assistant at the Faculty of Sciences of Algiers, disappeared in Algiers…<br>Intermittently, when the wind of freedom blows, already the storm of truth is brewing. Men<br>of goodwill always refusing indifference, voices never fail to rise above the boos to restore<br>order to things in the chaos of bad intentions.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Algeria without the French of Colonization The Unforgivable Suspicion 2023-01-11T11:01:57+00:00 Foudil DAHOU <p>What is the nature of the Algerian national ideal? What personalities of values<br>have succeeded the martyrs and have been able to preserve their revolutionary message<br>whose dissident ideas and indomitable resolution cross the borders of time and space? What<br>remarkable character have the people forged for themselves through difficult times and which<br>encourages them to always valiantly fight all kinds of prejudices that perpetually threaten<br>their freedom? What messages does the commemoration of Independence convey each year<br>for the rising generations and for each citizen immediately immersed in introspection? When<br>the most diverse passions dominate the most varied discourses, the result can only be a<br>debacle of opinions that the auctorialities, who claim to have the cult of the fatherland, find<br>it very difficult to master in an era of distressing post-truth. Where memory resides, oblivion<br>passes irretrievably. Then arise the denunciation which accuses and the betrayal which<br>responds to it. Unless the refutation intervenes unexpectedly or opportunely. It’s just finally&nbsp;a question of time and more specifically of traces or more exactly of “war” of the Archives. A<br>multitude of discourses of History in action.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Independence: Supreme Character of a People Algerianness Through Letters 2023-01-11T11:04:29+00:00 Asma MARIR <p>Since its emergence (during colonization), Algerian literature of French<br>expression has followed a singular course which, proceeding from a striking identity of<br>writing, has been able to gradually reclaim and preserve its “Algerianness” as a singulative<br>mode of a reappropriation of the primordial Self. History, culture and language are its<br>instruments.<br>However, can an enlightened analytical reading of the concept of “Algerianity”, via the<br>French-speaking Algerian text, today only describe the particularity and highlight the<br>singularity of this writing, as complex as it is complicated in the absence of a watchword<br>behind which to line up like that of Negritude? Patriotism retains only one and only thing:<br>to write an Algerian-style romantic fiction is to forge the soul of a hero in the interactive focus<br>of national history and its heritage in the light of cultural scenes and language practices<br>mastered by “visionary” Algerian writers.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mohamed Morsli BOUAYAD Tlemcen en un clin d’oeil 2023-01-11T11:07:37+00:00 Mustapha GUENAOU <p>This publication is an exemplary work for the History and Memory of the city of<br>Tlemcen, a historic city with a rich social and cultural past. It takes up History, Society, the<br>local population, the hawmats (district), the znaqui (streets, alleys, avenues and boulevards).<br>Several people are mentioned there; each with their respective journey through trades,<br>professions, arts, …</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Patriarchy in Régina Yaou’s La révolte d’Affiba 2023-01-11T11:08:17+00:00 Martha MZITE <p>This article analyzes the effects of social inequalities on women, how they can<br>unleash these practices that hinder their emancipation. This study therefore proposes to<br>analyze how women revolt against patriarchy in The Price of Revolt: Affiba. To carry out this<br>investigation, Spivak’s perspective “can subordinates speak ?” and that of Beauvoir “one is<br>not born a woman but rather becomes” are necessary for this analysis. The study concludes that<br>customs promote masculinity, but given the opportunity, women can break free.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Chadian Political Society and Culture of Forgiveness A Perception of Living Together in Al-Istifakh ou l’idylle de mes amis by Marie-Christine Koundja 2023-01-11T11:08:45+00:00 Pierre Suzanne EYENGA ONANA <p>Can the culture of forgiveness that runs through the examination of the political society of Marie Christine Koundja’s fiction sediment better relational perspectives between individuals to the point of allowing a new city to emerge and a new man more concerned with the other in a Chad ravaged by a deep crisis of living together? Based on the sociocriticism developed by Pierre Bourdieu and Henri Mitterand, the present study examines, in three parts, the innovative paths that should lead to an imminent return of social peace in a romanticized universe where the glimpses of the good life have given rise to impostures of various kinds.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mythological Uses in the SF Comic by Valérie Mangin La barque de Râ and Cimetière Céleste (2014) 2023-01-11T11:09:10+00:00 Fatima SEDDAOUI <p>This article focuses on the mythological dimension in a diptych Expérience mort including the tome 1, La barque de Râ and the tome 2, Cimetière Céleste by Valérie Mangin and Denis Bajram. Precisely, by analyzing the story from selected graphic sequences in a science-fictional context we emphasize the usage mytological, whit its challenges and its limits.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Writing Postcolonial Power In Contemporary Chadian Novel 2023-01-11T11:10:31+00:00 Israël Mode <p>Based on the postcolonial and socio-critical approach, this study deciphers the political, economic and social powers as they are managed in Chadian post-colonial society. It is concerned to demonstrate the stalemate of postcolony in all the above-mentioned aspects and singularly imputes this failure of progress to postcolonial leaders. What is the face of colonial power and to what does a mode of governance modelled on the dictatorial methods adopted by the former masters lead? Moreover, do not the new rulers in question give themselves to the dictatorship with joy and all the consequences that entails at the internal level of the country? This article shows how, feeling indebted to the metropolis, the source of their political power, the said officials squander the economic resources of their countries to grease the paws of the Westerners, in order to obtain from them favor and drag on to power.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Female domination in Fatou Diome’s Celles qui attendent and in Philomène Bassek’s La tache de sang 2023-01-11T11:10:56+00:00 Martha MZITE <p>This study is motivated by the observation that the subject of masculinity in African women’s writing has not yet been sufficiently explored. Little attention has been paid to analyzing women’s writing in relation to masculinity. This study therefore proposes to analyze patriarchy as a form of masculinity that catalyzes the domination of women. To carry out this investigation, Connell’s (2005) perspective on masculinity is necessary in the analysis of La tache de sang by Philomène Bassek and Celles qui attendent by Fatou Diome. Connell recognizes that masculinity is a social construct rather than a state. He also argues that there is a variety of masculinities and that masculinity only exists in relation to femininity. The article answers the following question: why do men behave in the way they do? This study concludes that customs promote masculinity.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The « Disturbing Literary » In the Novel of West African Immigration 2023-01-11T11:12:47+00:00 Edwige KENFACK ZANKIA <p>The richness of the novel of immigration lies not only in the framework of the quest for well-being by unhappy Africans who arrived in Europe and America by various means. It is also based on the aesthetics of this problem, which some describe as “disturbing literary”. What are the declensions and the profound meaning in the West African story? The socio-critical nature of Pierre Barbéris underlies this reflection. It is articulated in two axes, which also constitute the parts of our study: the explicit and the implicit. It is a question of seeing how the chosen authors aestheticize the theme of immigration in the West African novel through rhetoric and intergenericity.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Spatial Study in Ngugi Wa Thiong’o and Mongo Beti’s Trilogy Or the Resurgence of Colonial Oppression 2023-01-11T11:13:12+00:00 Diderot Philippe MBAH <p>This article aims to study the romantic space of of Ngugi wa Thiong'o and Mongo Beti’s trilogies. On the one hand, it establishes a link between the oppression suffered by the characters in the text and the colonial oppression that African populations suffered during the invasion of their continent by European colonizers. On the other hand, it examines the communication crisis that rages between the holders of power and their constituents. To do this, we call upon Stephen Greenblatt and Catherine Gallagher’s new historicism and Mansour M'henni’s brachypoetics.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Marcien Towa and the Question of Exceeding Negritude For Intellectual Renaissance in Africa 2023-01-11T11:13:32+00:00 Rodrigue BOLEHEKEN TOKET <p>Apart from the Negro-renaissance, understood as a literary, artistic and above all revolutionary movement, initiated by the descendants of slaves in the USA around the 20s of the last century, negritude has appeared as the first black intellectual weapon in the fight for recognition. of the anthropological dignity of the black man. Certainly, negritude had its full raison d'être insofar as it first appeared as a need for a return to the sources allowing the African conscience to find its bearings in the face of the crisis it was going through; then and finally as a movement of revolt against the condition of an Africa dominated by Western imperialism. But despite this salutary, better, revolutionary aspect of the Negritude movement, which consisted in clearing the way for revolution and liberation,&nbsp;Marcien Towa, in his conceptualization of the African intellectual renaissance, establishes the difference between Negritude of Senghor and that of Césaire to lead to the idea that this literary current must be overcome because it extends into ethnophilosophy, whereas the latter is not likely to provide Africa dominated by imperialism no development. This is the reason why the present reflection proposes to examine the problem of going beyond negritude in Marcien Towa. It is a question of showing how it is necessary that negritude and its corollaries be exceeded, even abandoned for the exercise of authentic philosophy in Africa, the way par excellence of the mastery and appropriation of universal civilization.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Some reflections on the “antiphilosophy” At Work in À la recherche du temps perdu by Marcel Proust 2023-01-11T11:14:00+00:00 Loubna ABAHANI <p>This article follows on from the philosophical readings that have revived the reputation of the Proustian critic that was focused on the motive of involuntary memory. Based on the study of Gilles Deleuze Proust et les Signes, we propose some reflections on the “antiphilosophy” that is taking place in the meanders of the great novel cycle of À la recherche du temps perdu.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Didactic Book Between Ideological Tensions and Institutional Intentions 2023-01-11T11:14:36+00:00 Khaled MESBAHI <p>In this article we try to accentuate our work on the school through the manual, as the cognitive reference for the student as well as for the teacher. The educational enclosure will be according to the quality of this pedagogical support in its conceptual and didactic dimension. We try to focus on the conflict of political, economic, social interests and their influence on the school manual giving a vision to conceive it aiming to prepare the right citizen.<br>Consequently, the learner will fall victim to the problem of insecurity. The latter generates a blockage in the transposition of knowledge. Both the teacher and the learner, having a poor representation of the target language, refuse any possible appropriation. It is obvious that the foreign language is supposed to be the window that tries to harmonize the exotic and the chimerical in the mind in a climate of mutual consideration and in a context of mutual valorization with always a happy entry that does not contradict itself with the parent culture.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Role of Relevance in Translation 2023-01-11T11:14:56+00:00 Khaled OCHI <p>For the purposes of the following research, we understand translation (or translation exercise) as an innate or acquired ability to convey a message from a source language (SL) to a target language (TL), by decoding and semiotic encoding, ensuring that the content, form and effect of that message on the recipient are preserved. We offer a relevance-based interpreting process to achieve quality standards in communication: a translator requires a broad knowledge of the mother tongue, as well as the contextual and cultural elements of the target language.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Construction of Discursive and Collective Memories in the Cameroonian Regional Press During the Pre-Election Period The Case of Legislative and Municipal Elections in Ouest Echos and L’OEil du Sahel 2023-01-11T11:15:54+00:00 Mohamed Nacer NJOYA KOUOTOU <p>This reflection starts from the postulate that the Cameroonian regional press contributes to the construc-tion of discursive and collective memories through language formulas, the meaning of words and traces of previous constructions, which are implicitly or explicitly part of the discourse of the media information. The corpus of study, made up of two regional newspapers (Ouest Echos and L’OEil du Sahel), makes it possi-ble to understand that the discourse of media information is both the site of the circulation of discursive memories and the construction of collective memories.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Environment and Humanity The Case of Africa 2023-01-11T11:16:22+00:00 El Hadji Tafsir Baba Ndao DIOUF <p>The environmental situation of the world, particularly that of Africa, is worrying.<br>Indeed, from the year 2000 to the present day, high greenhouse gas emissions have upset the<br>balance of the environment, thus causing unprecedented global warming. The main polluting<br>countries are the least vulnerable. Unlike Africa, which is the main victim of this global<br>warming even though it is the area that produces the least greenhouse gases. Thinkers like<br>Léopold S. Senghor have warned of this dominating attitude of man towards the environment<br>which has caused this climatic imbalance. Léopold S. Senghor calls for a perception that is<br>not positivist of the environment (specific to Westerners) but rather an adequate<br>phenomenological attitude to preserve the environment.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##